Models in science education

I think nearly all students love building models in science lessons. We can use different models to help students understand abstract ideas that can’t easily be observed. Models slow students’ thinking down and encourage them to think deeply and imaginatively about scientific ideas. Asking students to create models helps make their thinking visible, giving teachers insight into their current understanding and misconceptions.

Why use models?

  1. Modelling is an important part of the scientific process. For example, climate change models allow scientists to make predictions and test theories
  2. Models help students understand abstract scientific ideas that cannot always be seen – these are representational models

In general, scientists favour the simplest, parsimonious models over the more complex ones (this is know as Occam’s Razor). The simplest models are those that represent a complex scientific process through a ‘simple’ mathematical equation.

When use models in the lesson?

A model helps to clarify thinking and resolve understanding. A model is best used after the scientific explanation. If a model is used too early on students don’t appreciate its explaining power and instead only see its literal parts.

Evaluating different modelsTypes of model in science lessons

Scale models: help students visualise an idea, process or system that is too small to see. For example, modelling metallic structures using bubbles.

Analogue models: help make links between an abstract idea and a real-world situation that students can understand. For example, comparing a cell to a city and comparing circuits to ropes and central heating systems.

Historical models: help show how ideas have changed through time. Models increase in sophistication over time and so often mirror the changing ideas students have. Models need to be adapted throughout history because they need to explain ever-more complex ideas. For example, models of atomic structure throughout history.

Mathematical models: help show and predict what happens to certain variables when parameters are changed. For example, modelling radioactive decay.

Theoretical models: help bring together a range of experiences and theories. For example, evolution.

Using models effectively in science lessons

  1. Can students describe the model in their own words? Are they seeing what you are seeing?
  2. Can students identify limitations of the model?
  3. Can students suggest improvements to the model?
  4. Can students create and evaluate their model?

Free online animations and models

Phet free online animations for biology, chemistry and physics. These animations are fantastic and free to download to use in your science classrooms.

Further reading
  • Frost, J., & Toplis, R. (Eds.). (2010). Learning to Teach Science in the Secondary School: a companion to school experience. Routledge.
  • Parkinson, J. (2002) Reflective Teaching of Science 11-18. London: Continuum.
  • Whitehouse, M. (2015). Science and models. Science Spotlight Issue 5. OCR
  1. Clearly defined lesson objectives
  2. The Do Now
  3. Check prior knowledge
  4. Challenge your students
  5. Use context
  6. Use questioning to probe understanding
  7. Challenge all students appropriately 
  8. Use direct instruction to provide clear explanations
  9. Model abstract ideas in concrete ways
  10. Troubleshooting  – why did it not work?!